Building, Testing, and Contributing¶
Testing Latest Commits on HEAD¶
There are several ways to use DDEV’s latest-committed HEAD version:
- Download the latest master branch artifacts from nightly.link. Each of these is built by the CI system, signed, and notarized. Get the one you need and place it in your
- Homebrew install HEAD: On macOS and Linux, run
brew unlink ddev && brew install ddev/ddev/ddev --HEAD --fetch-HEADto get the latest DDEV commit, even if it’s unreleased. Since you’re building this on your own computer, it’s not signed or notarized, and you’ll get a notification that instrumentation doesn’t work, which is fine. If you’re using Linux/WSL2, you’ll likely need to install build-essential by running the following command:
sudo apt install -y build-essential.
- Build manually: If you have normal build tools like
goinstalled, you can check out the code and run
- Gitpod You can use the latest build by visiting DDEV on Gitpod.
Testing a PR¶
Each PR build creates GitHub artifacts you can use for testing, so you can download the one you need from the PR page, install it locally, and test using that build.
Download and unzip the appropriate binary and place it in your
Homebrew with macOS or Linux¶
If you’re using Homebrew, start by unlinking your current binary:
Next, unzip the binary you downloaded, make it executable, and move it to your bin folder:
Verify the replacement worked by running
ddev -v. The output should be something like
ddev version v1.22.5-alpha1-70-g0852fc2df, instead of the regular
ddev version v1.22.5.
macOS and Unsigned Binaries
macOS doesn’t like these downloaded binaries, so you’ll need to bypass the automatic quarantine to use them:
(The binaries on the master branch and the final release binaries are signed.)
You do not typically have to install anything else other than the downloaded binary; when you run it it will access any Docker images that it needs.
After you’re done, you can delete your downloaded binary and re-link the original Homebrew one:
Installing a Downloaded Binary in the
Normally, you can put any executable in your path, and it takes precedence, so you don’t need to remove or disable an already installed DDEV instance, which we will use here. This example uses
echo $PATH and
which ddev are valuable commands for debugging. Since not every distro has
$PATH, you can create the folder and add it to your path in
~/.bashrc with these commands:
Next, unzip the ZIP file you downloaded, make it executable, and move it to a folder in your path. Check with
Now, close and reopen your terminal, and verify the replacement worked by running
ddev version. The output should be something like
DDEV version v1.22.3-39-gfbb878843, instead of the regular
DDEV version v1.22.3.
You need to run
ddev poweroff and
ddev start to download the Docker images that it needs.
After you’re done testing, you can delete your downloaded executable, restart your terminal, and again use the standard DDEV:
Open in Gitpod¶
Gitpod provides a quick, preconfigured DDEV experience in the browser for testing a PR easily without the need to set up an environment. In any PR you can use the URL
https://gitpod.io/#https://github.com/ddev/ddev/pulls/<YOUR-PR> to open that PR and build it in Gitpod.
If you want to run a web project, you can check it out into
/workspace/<yourproject> and use it as usual. The things you’re familiar with work normally, except that
ddev-router does not run.
A Gitpod dummy project for is provided by default in
/workspace/d9simple. If you’re testing your own project, you will need to delete it to free up reserved host ports by running
ddev delete -Oy d9simple. Then you can run
ddev start to work with your own.
Making Changes to DDEV Images¶
If you need to make a change to one of the DDEV images, it will need to be built with a specific tag that’s updated in
For example, make a change to
containers/ddev-webserver/Dockerfile, then build it:
pkg/versionconstants/versionconstants.go to set
var WebTag = "20210424_fix_dockerfile" and
ddev version should show you that you are using the correct webtag, and
ddev start will show it.
It’s easiest to do this using Gitpod (see above) because Gitpod already has
docker buildx all set up for you and the built DDEV binary is in the
Pull Requests and PR Preparation¶
When preparing your pull request, please use a branch name like
20230901_rfay_short_description) so it’s easy to identify you as the author.
Docker Image Changes¶
If you make changes to a Docker image (like
ddev-webserver), it won’t have any effect unless you:
- Push an image with a specific tag by navigating to the image directory (like
containers/ddev-webserver), and running
make push DOCKER_REPO=youruser/yourimage VERSION=<branchname>.
- Multi-arch images require you to have a Buildx builder, so
docker buildx create --name ddev-builder-multi --use.
- You can’t push until you
- Push a container to hub.docker.com. Push with the tag that matches your branch. Push to
make push DOCKER_ORG=<yourorg> VERSION=<branchname>in the container directory. You might have to use other techniques to push to another repository.
WebTagthat relate to the Docker image you pushed.
Local Builds and Pushes¶
buildx successfully you have to have the
buildx Docker plugin, which is in many environments by default.
To build multi-platform images you must
docker buildx create --use as a one-time initialization.
If you want to work locally with a quick build for your architecture, you can:
make mariadb_10.3 VERSION=<version>etc.
To push manually:
If you’re pushing to a repository other than the one wired into the Makefile (like
Pushes Using GitHub Actions¶
To manually push using GitHub Actions,
For Most Images¶
- Visit Actions → Push tagged image
- Click “Run workflow” in the blue band near the top.
- Choose the branch, usually
masterand then the image to be pushed,
ddev-dbserver, etc. Also you can use
allto build and push all of them. Include a tag for the pushed image and GitHub will do all the work.
- Visit Actions → Push tagged db image
- Click “Run workflow” in the blue band near the top.
- Choose the branch, usually
master. Include a tag for the pushed image and GitHub will do all the work.
The instrumentation implementation is generated using the Ampli Codegen.
To synchronize the implementation with the latest changes at Amplitude, the CLI tool has to be installed locally:
Make changes to the event definition using the GUI at https://data.amplitude.com/ddev/DDEV:
- create a new branch
- create or change events and properties
- save changes to the new branch
- update the implementation with
ampli checkout <branch name>
- make changes to the code
Once finished, save the changes to publish a new version of the definitions.
Afterwards the changes can be imported running the following command in the project root:
Once the changes are ready to be merged, merge the changes made in the new branch to the main branch in the Amplitude backend and switch back to the main branch:
Make sure the API keys are not included to the sources; they are linked during compilation using a GitHub secret.
There are two environments defined,
DDEV - Production and
DDEV - Development. Master builds will deliver the data to production, PR builds to development.
When working on Amplitude, please always make sure the correct environment is selected or you won’t see any data. Selection is possible on most pages.
User and event data¶
The first step is always to identify the device, this includes data like OS, architecture, DDEV version, Docker, etc., details are visible in the User Properties. The devices are called Users in the Amplitude backend. So every user represents an unique device on which DDEV is installed.
The second step is to collect data about the command which was called by the user and is delivered by a dedicated
Project event finally collects data about the loaded project(s) which includes important configuration details like PHP version, database, etc.
Information about data debugging can be found at https://www.docs.developers.amplitude.com/data/debugger/. Ingestion debugger or via User lookup are the most useful options for DDEV.
Don’t forget to select the matching environment while debugging.
Examining data on Amplitude.com¶
ddev binaries have to be built with
AmplitudeAPIKey set. Visit
https://app.amplitude.com/data/ddev/DDEV/sources/production and select either “Production” or “Development”, then click the “Go SDK” line to get the API key. Then set
export AmplitudeAPIKey=<key> and build the binaries with
ddev commands as usual, and the data will be sent to Amplitude.
- You can examine data on the local side with
export DDEV_VERBOSE=truebut it’s awkward. However, the actual data is always marked with
$identify(User data). For example, DDEV_VERBOSE=true ddev start 2>&1 | grep AMPLITUDE`
- To see the data show up on Amplitude, you’ll need to
ddev debug instrumentation flush.
- To make it easier to find your data, use the “Development” key and set your
instrumentation_userto a familiar value in
~/.ddev/global_config.yaml. For example,
instrumentation_user: rfaywould make it so you can find the user
- To inspect data, visit “User Lookup”, (
https://app.amplitude.com/analytics/ddev/activity) and choose the correct source in the upper left (“DDEV Production” or “DDEV Development”). Then use “Search users” in the upper right to find the user you are studying. If you’ve used an
instrumentation_userit will be searchable as “User”. (Advanced->where: “User” = “rfay”. for example). You’ll then have a page devoted to the events of that user.
- You’ll want both your fork/branch and the upstream as remotes in Git, so that tags can be determined. For example, the upstream Git remote can be
https://github.com/ddev/ddevand your fork’s remote can be
email@example.com:<yourgithubuser>/ddev. Without the upstream, Git may not know about tags that it needs for tests to work.
- To run tests, you’ll want
~/tmpto be allowed in Docker. This is not normally an issue as the home directory is available by default in most Docker providers.
Build the project with
make and your resulting executable will end up in
.gotmp/bin/linux_arm64/ddev (for Linux) or
.gotmp/bin/windows_amd64/ddev.exe (for Windows) or
.gotmp/bin/darwin_arm64/ddev (for macOS).
Build/test/check static analysis with:
Normal test invocation is
make test. Run a single test with an invocation like
go test -v -run TestDevAddSites ./pkg/... or
make test TESTARGS="-run TestDevAddSites". The easiest way to run tests is from inside the excellent golang IDE GoLand. Click the arrowhead to the left of the test name.
To see which DDEV commands the tests are executing, set the environment variable
GOTEST_SHORT=true to run one CMS in each test, or
GOTEST_SHORT=<integer> to run exactly one project type from the list of project types in the TestSites array. For example,
GOTEST_SHORT=5 make test TESTARGS="-run TestDdevFullSiteSetup" will run only
TestDdevFullSiteSetup against TYPO3.
To run a test (in the
cmd package) against a individually-compiled DDEV binary, set the
DDEV_BINARY_FULLPATH environment variable, for example
DDEV_BINARY_FULLPATH=$PWD/.gotmp/bin/linux_amd64/ddev make testcmd.
The easiest way to run tests is using GoLand (or VS Code) with their built-in test runners and debuggers. You can step through a specific test; you can stop at the point before the failure and experiment with the site that the test has set up.
Anybody can view the CircleCI automated tests, and they usually show up any problems that are not OS-specific. Click through on the testing section of the PR to see them.
The Buildkite automated tests require special access, which we typically grant to any PR contributor that asks for it.
Docker Image Development¶
The Docker images that DDEV uses are included in the
containers/ddev-php-basethe base build for
containers/ddev-webserverprovides the web servers for per-project
dbcontainer for per-project databases.
containers/ddev-nginx-proxy-routeris the (deprecated) the nginx-proxy router image.
containers/ddev-ssh-agentprovides a single in-Docker-network SSH agent so projects can use your SSH keys.
containers/ddev-traefik-routeris the current Traefik-based router image.
When changes are made to an image, they have to be temporarily pushed to a tag—ideally with the same as the branch name of the PR—and the tag updated in
pkg/versionconstants/versionconstants.go. Please ask if you need a container pushed to support a pull request.
Pull Request Pro Tips¶
- Fork the repository and clone it locally. Connect your local to the original ‘upstream’ repository by adding it as a remote, and pull upstream changes often so you stay up to date and reduce the likelihood of conflicts when you submit your pull request. See more detailed instructions here.
- Create a branch for your edits.
- Be clear about the problem and how someone can recreate it, or why your feature will help. Be equally clear about the steps you took to make your changes.
- It’s best to test. Run your changes against any existing tests and create new tests when needed. Whether tests exist or not, make sure your changes don’t break the existing project.
Open Pull Requests¶
Once you’ve opened a pull request, a discussion will start around your proposed changes. Other contributors and users may chime in, but ultimately the decision is made by the maintainer(s). You may be asked to make some changes to your pull request. If so, add more commits to your branch and push them. They’ll automatically go into the existing pull request.
If your pull request is merged, great! If not, no sweat; it may not be what the project maintainer had in mind, or they were already working on it. This happens, so our recommendation is to take any feedback you’ve received and go forth and pull request again. Or create your own open source project.
Pull Request Title Guidelines¶
We have very precise rules over how our PR titles (and thus master-branch commits) are to be formatted. This leads to more readable messages that are easy to follow when looking through the project history. But also, we use the master-branch Git commit messages to generate the changelog for the releases.
The pull request title must follow this convention which is based on the Conventional Commits specification:
<type>[optional !]: <description>[, fixes #<issue>]
build: bump mutagen to 0.17.2
ci: enforce commit message convention, fixes #5037
docs: change code refs of Mac M1 to Apple Silicon
feat: allow multiple upload dirs, fixes #4190, fixes #4796
fix: create upload_dir if it doesn't exist in ddev composer create, fixes #5031
refactor: add new Amplitude Property DDEV-Environment
test: optimize caching of downloaded assets
Must be one of the following:
- build: Changes that affect the build or external dependencies
- ci: Changes to our CI configuration files and scripts
- docs: Documentation only changes
- feat: A new feature
- fix: A bugfix
- refactor: A code change that neither fixes a bug nor adds a feature
- test: Adding missing tests or correcting existing tests
Regarding SemVer, all types above except
feat increase the patch version,
feat increases the minor version.
No scope must be used.
Breaking changes must have a
! appended after type/scope.
Regarding SemVer, breaking changes increase the major version.
Subject / Description¶
The subject contains a succinct description of the change:
- use the imperative, present tense: “change” not “changed” nor “changes”
- don’t capitalize the first letter
- no dot (.) at the end
If an issue exists for the change,
, fixes #<issue number> must be appended to the subject.
If the commit reverts a previous commit, it should begin with
revert:, followed by the header of the reverted commit. In the body it should say:
This reverts commit <hash>., where the hash is the SHA of the commit being reverted.
Unless explicitly stated, we follow all coding guidelines from the Go community. While some of these standards may seem arbitrary, they somehow seem to result in a solid, consistent codebase.
It is possible that the codebase does not currently comply with these guidelines. We are not looking for a massive PR that fixes this since that goes against the spirit of the guidelines. All new contributions should make a best effort to clean up and make the codebase better than they left it. Obviously, apply your best judgment. Remember, the goal here is to make the codebase easier for humans to navigate and understand. Always keep that in mind when nudging others to comply.
make staticrequired to ensure that your code can pass the required static analysis tests.
- All code should be formatted with
- All code should pass the default levels of
- All code should follow the guidelines covered in Effective Go and Go Code Review Comments.
- Comment the code. Tell us the why, the history and the context.
- Document all declarations and methods, even private ones. Declare expectations, caveats and anything else that may be important. If a type gets exported, having the comments already there will ensure it’s ready.
- Variable name length should be proportional to its context and no longer.
noCommaALongVariableNameLikeThisIsNotMoreClearWhenASimpleCommentWouldDo. In practice, short methods will have short variable names and globals will have longer names.
- No underscores in package names. If you need a compound name, step back, and re-examine why you need a compound name. If you still think you need a compound name, lose the underscore.
- All tests should run with
go testand outside tooling should not be required. No, we don’t need another unit testing framework. Assertion packages are acceptable if they provide real incremental value.
- Even though we call these “rules” above, they are guidelines. Since you’ve read all the rules, you now know that.
If you are having trouble getting into the mood of idiomatic Go, we recommend reading through Effective Go. The Go Blog is also a great resource. Drinking the kool-aid is a lot easier than going thirsty.