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Release Management & Docker Images

Release process and tools

  • Goreleaser Pro is used to do the actual releasing using .goreleaser.yml. Goreleaser Pro is a licensed product that requires a license key, which is in the GitHub Workflow configuration and is available in LastPass to DDEV maintainers who need it.
  • The Master Build/Release GitHub Action does the actual running of the goreleaser actions and provides the needed secrets.

GitHub Actions Required Secrets

How to add new people to these accounts

  • AUR is Arch Linux User Repository. ddev-bin is at The current maintainer of this is @cweagans, who can add co-maintainers.
  • The chocolatey package. Additional maintainers can be added at link; they could then create tokens to push it.
  • GitHub requires write access to this repository, either via permissions on the repository or on the org.
  • Apple signing and notarization requires access to the Localdev Foundation group on It’s easy enough to add additional people.
  • Windows signing is an awkward process that requires a dongle. When the current signing certificate expires we definitely want the simpler approach.
  • Discord
  • Docker

Actual secrets required

The following “Repository secret” environment variables must be added to

  • AUR_SSH_PRIVATE_KEY: Private ssh key for the ddev-releaser user. This must be processed into a single line, for example, perl -p -e 's/\n/<SPLIT>/' ~/.ssh/id_rsa_ddev_releaser| pbcopy.
  • CHOCOLATEY_API_KEY: API key for Chocolatey.
  • DDEV_GITHUB_TOKEN: GitHub token that gives access to create releases and push to the Homebrew repositories.
  • DDEV_MACOS_APP_PASSWORD: Password used for notarization, see signing_tools.
  • DDEV_MACOS_SIGNING_PASSWORD: Password for the macOS signing key, see signing_tools.
  • DDEV_WINDOWS_SIGNING_PASSWORD: Windows signing password.
  • SegmentKey: Key that enables Segment reporting.
  • FURY_ACCOUNT: Gemfury account that receives package pushes.
  • FURY_TOKEN: Push token assigned to the above Gemfury account.
  • AUR_STABLE_GIT_URL: The Git URL for AUR stable (normally ddev-bin), for example ssh://
  • AUR_EDGE_GIT_URL: The Git URL for AUR edge (normally ddev-edge-bin), for example ssh://

Creating a Release

This is completely automated now, so nothing needs to be done unless something goes wrong.

Prerelease Tasks

  • Create and execute a test plan.
  • Make sure is up to date.
  • Push the new version of drud/ddev-php-base.
  • Update drud/ddev-webserver to use the new version of drud/ddev-php-base and push it with the proper tag.
  • Make sure the Docker images are all tagged and pushed.
  • Make sure pkg/versionconstants/versionconstants.go is all set to point to the new images and tests have been run.
  • If the devcontainer-feature.json (for GitHub Codespaces) needs to be updated, use the devcontainer CLI:

    cd .github/devcontainers/source
    export GITHUB_TOKEN=<personal-access-token-with-power-to-manage-packages>
    devcontainer features publish -n ddev/ddev .

Actual Release Creation

  1. Create a release for the new version using the GitHub UI. It should be “prerelease” if it’s an edge release.
  2. Make sure you’re about to create the right release tag.
  3. Use the “Auto-generate release notes” option to get the commit list, then edit to add all the other necessary info.

Post-Release Tasks

  1. After the release has been created, the new gitpod image must be pushed.
    1. cd .gitpod/images && DOCKER_TAG="<YYMMDD>" ./
    2. PR to update .gitpod.yml with the new image.
    3. PR to update ddev-gitpod-launcher with the new image.

Pushing Docker Images with the GitHub Actions Workflow

The easiest way to push Docker images is to use the GitHub Actions workflow, especially if the code for the image is already in the ddev/ddev repository.

Actual release creation

  1. Create a release for the new version using the GitHub UI. It should be “prerelease” if it’s an edge release.
  2. Use the “Auto-generate release notes” option to get the commit list, then edit to add all the other necessary info.
  3. Verify that Homebrew (Linux and macOS) and Chocolatey and AUR are working correctly with the right versions.

You can push an image at

If you need to push from a forked PR, you’ll have to do this from your fork (for example,, and you’ll have to specify the branch on the fork. This requires setting the DOCKERHUB_TOKEN and DOCKERHUB_USERNAME secrets on the forked PR, for example

  • Visit
  • Click the “Push tagged image” workflow on the left side of the page.
  • Click the “Run workflow” button in the blue section above the workflow runs.
  • Choose the branch to build from (usually master).
  • Enter the image (ddev-webserver, ddev-dbserver, ddev-php-base, etc.).
  • Enter the tag that will be used in pkg/version/version.go.

Pushing Docker Images Manually

While it’s more error-prone, images can be pushed from the command line:

  1. docker login with a user that has push privileges.
  2. docker buildx create --name ddev-builder-multi --use or if it already exists, docker buildx use ddev-builder-multi.
  3. cd containers/<image>.
  4. Before pushing ddev-webserver, make sure you’ve pushed a version of ddev-php-base and updated ddev-webserver’s Dockerfile to use that as a base.
  5. make push VERSION=<release_version> DOCKER_ARGS=--no-cache for most of the images. For ddev-dbserver it’s make PUSH=true VERSION=<release_version> DOCKER_ARGS=--no-cache. There’s a script to update all of them, but it takes forever.

Maintaining ddev-dbserver MySQL 5.7 & 8.0 ARM64 Images

Sadly, there are no ARM64 Docker images for MySQL 5.7 and 8.0, so we have our own process to maintain ddev/mysql-arm64-images and ddev/xtrabackup-build images for DDEV.

  • drud/mysql:5.7 uses Ubuntu 18.04 as the base image, and Ubuntu 18.04 ARM64 has mysql-server 5.7 in it, so we can install.
  • drud/mysql:8.0 uses Ubuntu 20.04 as the base image, and Ubuntu 20.04 ARM64 has mysql-server 8.0 in it, so we can install it from packages.
  • Unfortunately, the ddev snapshot command depends on xtrabackup 8.0 being installed for mysql:8.0. There are no ARM64 packages or binaries provided by Percona for xtrabackup, so we build it from source with ddev/xtrabackup-build. There’s a catch, however: xtrabackup’s development cycle lags behind mysql:8.0’s development cycle, so you can’t build a usable drud/mysql:8.0 image until there’s an xtrabackup version released. Further, when Ubuntu bumps mysql-server-8.0 to a new version, there’s no way to use the old one. So the only time that you can maintain drud/mysql:8.0 is when Ubuntu 20.04 has the same version that’s released for percona-xtrabackup. (In the case at this writeup, I was finally able to build percona-xtrabackup 8.0.28, and the same day Ubuntu bumped its packages to 8.0.29, meaning that it was unusable.)
  • To build percona-xtrabackup, follow the instructions on ddev/xtrabackup-build. You just create a release with the release of Percona xtrabackup, for example 8.0.29-21. When that succeeds, then there is an upstream xtrabackup to be used in the drud/mysql:8.0 build.
  • To build drud/mysql (both 5.7 and 8.0) ARM64 images, follow the instructions on ddev/mysql-arm64-images. After the various files are updated, you can push a new release and the proper images will be pushed.
  • After building a new set of drud/mysql images, you’ll need to push drud/ddev-dbserver with new tags. Make sure to update the ddev/ddev-dbserver Makefile to set the explicit version of the upstream mysql:8.0 (for example, 8.0.29, if you’ve succeeded in getting 8.0.29 for percona-xtrabackup and mysql:8.0).

Actual Release Docker Image Updates

We don’t actually build every image for every point release. If there have been no changes to ddev-router or ddev-ssh-agent, for example, we only usually push those and update pkg/version/version.go on major releases.

But here are the steps for building:

  1. The drud/ddev-php-base image must be updated as necessary with a new tag before pushing ddev-webserver. You can do this using the process above.
  2. The drud/ddev-webserver Dockerfile must FROM drud/ddev-php-base:<tag> before building/pushing ddev-webserver. But then it can be pushed using either the GitHub Actions or the manual technique.
  3. If you’re bumping ddev-dbserver 8.0 minor release, follow the upstream Maintaining ddev-dbserver MySQL 5.7 & 8.0 ARM64 Images instructions.
  4. Update pkg/version/version.go with the correct versions for the new images, and run all the tests.

Manually Updating Homebrew Formulas

Homebrew formulas normally update with the release process, so nothing needs to be done.

If you have to temporarily update the Homebrew formulas, you can do that with a commit to and The bottles and checksums for macOS (High Sierra) and x86_64_linux are built and pushed to the release page automatically by the release build process (see Test brew upgrade ddev both on macOS and Linux and make sure DDEV is the right version and behaves well.

Manually Updating Chocolatey

Normally the release process does okay with pushing to Chocolatey, but at times a failure can happen and it’s not worth doing the whole release process again.

Note that if an existing approved release is being updated you have to have a new version. So for example, if v1.21.3 failed, you’ll need to work with v1.21.3.1, so make chocolatey VERSION=v1.21.3.1 below.

cd /workspace/ddev
git checkout <tag>
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y nsis
sudo .ci-scripts/ /usr/share/nsis
  • Edit the checksum in tools/chocolateyinstall.ps1 to match the released checksum of the ddev-windows-installer in checksums.txt of the release that is being repaired, for example, for v1.21.3 this would be the checksum for ddev_windows_installer.v1.21.3.exe in v1.21.3 checksums.txt.
  • Edit url64 in tools/chocolateyinstall.ps1 to be the intended actual DDEV download version - edit the version where it appears and edit the GitHub org. For example, if the actual version of DDEV to be downloaded is v1.21.3 then put that there.
make chocolatey VERSION=<tag>
export CHOCOLATEY_API_KEY=key33333
cd .gotmp/bin/windows_amd64/chocolatey
docker run --rm -v $PWD:/tmp/chocolatey -w /tmp/chocolatey linuturk/mono-choco push -s --api-key "${CHOCOLATEY_API_KEY}"

Manually Updating AUR Repository

The AUR repository normally updates with the release process, so nothing needs to be done.

However, you can manually publish the release to the DDEV AUR repository. The in the AUR git repo (ssh:// or has instructions on how to update, including how to do it with a Docker container, so it doesn’t have to be done on an ArchLinux or Manjaro VM.

Manually Signing the Windows Installer

This is done by the release process, but the manual process is documented here.

This is done automatically by the release build on a dedicated Windows test runner (GitHub Actions runner) named testbot-asus-win10pro. You would need to do this process manually on that build machine or install the fob on another machine.

After rebooting this machine, sometimes an automated reboot, the password for the security fob has to be re-entered or Windows signing will fail. We do this by opening up tb-win11-06 using Chrome Remote Desktop (or manually physically opening it), opening Git Bash, and cd ~/tmp && signtool sign gsudo.exe. There happens to be a gsudo.exe there but it doesn’t matter what you sign—the idea is to pop up the GUI where you enter the password (which is in LastPass).

Basic Instructions

  1. Install the suggested Windows SDK. Only the signing component is required.
  2. Add the path of the kit binaries to the Windows system PATH, C:/Program Files (x86)/Windows Kits/10/bin/10.0.22621.0/x64/.
  3. The keyfob and Safenet Authentication Client must be installed. The best documentation for the Safenet software is at You must configure the advanced client settings to “Enable single logon” or it will require the password on each run.
  4. After make windows_install the ddev-windows-installer.exe will be in .ddev/bin/windows_amd64/ddev_windows_installer.exe and you can sign it with signtool sign ddev-windows-installer.exe.
  5. If you need to install the GitHub self-hosted Windows runner, do it with the instructions in project settings → Actions → Runners.
  6. Currently the actions/cache runner does not work out of the box on Windows, so you have to install tar and zstd as described in this issue.

We shouldn’t use this high-security keyfob approach to signing on the next go-around with the certs.

It’s way too difficult to manage, and the Safenet software is atrocious.

Last update: March 17, 2023