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Customizing Docker Images

It’s common to have a requirement for the web or db images which isn’t bundled with them by default. There are two ways to extend these Docker images:

  1. webimage_extra_packages and dbimage_extra_packages in .ddev/config.yaml.
  2. An add-on Dockerfile in your project’s .ddev/web-build or .ddev/db-build.

Adding Extra Debian Packages with webimage_extra_packages and dbimage_extra_packages

You can add extra Debian packages with lines like this in .ddev/config.yaml:

webimage_extra_packages: ["php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-yaml", "php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-tidy"]
dbimage_extra_packages: [telnet, netcat, sudo]

Then the additional packages will be built into the containers during ddev start.

Adding PHP Extensions

PHP Extensions supported by

If a PHP extension is supported by the upstream package management from, you’ll be able to add it with minimal effort. Test to see if it’s available using ddev exec 'sudo apt update && sudo apt install php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-<extension>', for example, ddev exec 'sudo apt update && sudo apt install php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-imap'. If that works, then the extension is supported, and you can add webimage_extra_packages: ["php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-<extension>"] to your .ddev/config.yaml file.

PECL PHP Extensions not supported by

Few people need pecl extensions

Most people don’t need to install PHP extensions that aren’t supported by, so you only need to go down this path if you have very particular needs.

If a PHP extension is not supported by the upstream package management from, you’ll install it via pecl using a .ddev/web-build/Dockerfile. You can search for the extension on to find the package name. (This technique can also be used to get newer versions of PHP extensions than are available in the distribution.)

For example, a .ddev/web-build/Dockerfile.mcrypt might look like this:

ENV extension=mcrypt
SHELL ["/bin/bash", "-c"]
# Install the needed development packages
RUN apt-get update && DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -y -o Dpkg::Options::="--force-confnew" --no-install-recommends --no-install-suggests build-essential php-pear php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-dev
# mcrypt happens to require libmcrypt-dev
RUN apt install -y libmcrypt-dev
RUN pecl install ${extension}
RUN echo "extension=${extension}.so" > /etc/php/${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}/mods-available/${extension}.ini && chmod 666 /etc/php/${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}/mods-available/${extension}.ini
RUN phpenmod ${extension}

A .ddev/web-build/Dockerfile.xlswriter to add xlswriter might be:

ENV extension=xlswriter
SHELL ["/bin/bash", "-c"]
# Install the needed development packages
RUN apt-get update && DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -y -o Dpkg::Options::="--force-confnew" --no-install-recommends --no-install-suggests build-essential php-pear php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-dev
# xlswriter requires libz-dev
RUN sudo apt install -y libz-dev
RUN echo | pecl install ${extension}
RUN echo "extension=${extension}.so" > /etc/php/${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}/mods-available/${extension}.ini && chmod 666 /etc/php/${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}/mods-available/${extension}.ini
RUN phpenmod ${extension}

A .ddev/web-build/Dockerfile.xdebug (overriding the version) might look like this:

# This example installs xdebug from pecl instead of the standard package
ENV extension=xdebug
SHELL ["/bin/bash", "-c"]
RUN phpdismod xdebug
# Install the needed development packages
RUN apt-get update && DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -y -o Dpkg::Options::="--force-confnew" --no-install-recommends --no-install-suggests build-essential php-pear php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-dev
# Remove the standard xdebug provided by
RUN apt remove php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-xdebug || true
RUN pecl install ${extension}
# Use the standard xdebug.ini from source
ADD /etc/php/${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}/mods-available
RUN chmod 666 /etc/php/${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}/mods-available/xdebug.ini
# ddev xdebug handles enabling module so we don't enable here
#RUN phpenmod ${extension}

Determining What Packages You Need

The web container is a Debian image, and its PHP distributions are packaged (thank you!) by

Most PHP extensions are built within the distribution. You can Google the extension you want, or download and search the Packages list from the sury distribution. For example, the bcmath PHP extension is provided by php-bcmath. Many packages have version-specific names, like php7.3-tidy.

If you need a package that is not a PHP package, you can view and search standard Debian packages at, or use Google.

To test that a package will do what you want, you can ddev ssh and sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install <package> to verify that you can install it and you get what you need. A PHP extension may require killall -USR2 php-fpm to take effect. After you’ve tried that, you can add the package to webimage_extra_packages.

Adding Extra Dockerfiles for webimage and dbimage

For more complex requirements, you can add:

  • .ddev/web-build/Dockerfile
  • .ddev/web-build/Dockerfile.*
  • .ddev/db-build/Dockerfile
  • .ddev/db-build/Dockerfile.*

These files’ content will be inserted into the constructed Dockerfile for each image. They are inserted after most of the rest of the things that are done to build the image, and are done in alphabetical order, so Dockerfile is inserted first, followed by Dockerfile.* in alphabetical order.

For certain use cases, you might need to add directives very early on the Dockerfile like proxy settings or SSL termination. You can use pre. variants for this that are inserted before everything else:

  • .ddev/web-build/pre.Dockerfile.*
  • .ddev/db-build/pre.Dockerfile.*

Examine the resultant generated Dockerfile (which you will never edit directly), at .ddev/.webimageBuild/Dockerfile. You can force a rebuild with ddev debug refresh.

Examples of possible Dockerfiles are .ddev/web-build/Dockerfile.example and .ddev/db-build/Dockerfile.example, created in your project when you run ddev config.

You can use the .ddev/*-build directory as the Docker “context” directory as well. So for example, if a file named README.txt exists in .ddev/web-build, you can use ADD README.txt / in the Dockerfile.

An example web image .ddev/web-build/Dockerfile might be:

RUN npm install -g gatsby-cli

Another example would be installing phpcs globally (see Stack Overflow answer):

ENV COMPOSER_HOME=/usr/local/composer

# We try to avoid relying on Composer to download global, so in `phpcs` case we can use the PHAR.
RUN curl -L -o /usr/local/bin/phpcs && chmod +x /usr/local/bin/phpcs
RUN curl -L -o /usr/local/bin/phpcbf && chmod +x /usr/local/bin/phpcbf

# If however we need to download a package, we use `cgr` for that.
RUN composer global require consolidation/cgr
RUN $COMPOSER_HOME/vendor/bin/cgr drupal/coder:^8.3.1
RUN $COMPOSER_HOME/vendor/bin/cgr dealerdirect/phpcodesniffer-composer-installer

# Register Drupal’s code sniffer rules.
RUN phpcs --config-set installed_paths $COMPOSER_HOME/global/drupal/coder/vendor/drupal/coder/coder_sniffer --verbose
# Make Codesniffer config file writable for ordinary users in container.
RUN chmod 666 /usr/local/bin/CodeSniffer.conf
# Make `COMPOSER_HOME` writable if regular users need to use it.
RUN chmod -R ugo+rw $COMPOSER_HOME
# Now turn it off, because ordinary users will want to be using the default.

Remember that the Dockerfile is building a Docker image that will be used later with DDEV. At the time the Dockerfile is executing, your code is not mounted and the container is not running, the image is being built. So for example, an npm install in /var/www/html will not do anything to your project because the code is not there at image building time.

Build Time Environment Variables

The following environment variables are available for the web Dockerfile to use at build time:

  • $BASE_IMAGE: the base image, like ddev/ddev-webserver:v1.21.4
  • $username: the username inferred from your host-side username
  • $uid: the user ID inferred from your host-side user ID
  • $gid: the group ID inferred from your host-side group ID
  • $DDEV_PHP_VERSION: the PHP version declared in your project configuration (provided in versions after v1.21.4)

For example, a Dockerfile might want to build an extension for the configured PHP version like this:

ENV extension=xhprof
ENV extension_repo=
ENV extension_version=v2.3.8

RUN apt-get update && DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get install -y -o Dpkg::Options::="--force-confnew" --no-install-recommends --no-install-suggests autoconf build-essential libc-dev php-pear php${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}-dev pkg-config zlib1g-dev
RUN mkdir -p /tmp/php-${extension} && cd /tmp/php-${extension} && git clone ${extension_repo} .
WORKDIR /tmp/php-${extension}/extension
RUN git checkout ${extension_version}
RUN phpize
RUN ./configure
RUN make install
RUN echo "extension=${extension}.so" > /etc/php/${DDEV_PHP_VERSION}/mods-available/${extension}.ini

Installing into the home directory

The in-container home directory is rebuilt when you run ddev restart, so if you have something that installs into the home directory (like ~/.cache) you’ll want to switch users in the Dockerfile. In this example, npx playwright install installs a number of things into ~/.cache, so we’ll switch to the proper user before executing it, and switch back to the root user after installation to avoid surprises with any other Dockerfile that may follow.

USER $username
# This is an example of creating a file in the home directory
RUN touch ~/${username}-was-here
# `npx playwright` installs lots of things in ~/.cache
RUN npx playwright install
RUN npx playwright install-deps
USER root

Debugging the Dockerfile Build

It can be complicated to figure out what’s going on when building a Dockerfile, and even more complicated when you’re seeing it go by as part of ddev start.

  1. Use ddev ssh first of all to pioneer the steps you want to take. You can do all the things you need to do there and see if it works. If you’re doing something that affects PHP, you may need to sudo killall -USR2 php-fpm for it to take effect.
  2. Put the steps you pioneered into .ddev/web-build/Dockerfile as above.
  3. If you can’t figure out what’s failing or why, running ddev debug refresh will show the full output of the build process. You can also run export DDEV_VERBOSE=true && ddev start to see what’s happening during the ddev start Dockerfile build.